Friday, 10 August 2012

Ritual Tabot Bengkulu

Ritual Tabot, Bengkulu, Indonesia

Tourist Attractions and Beaches in Indonesia
Tabot is a traditional ceremony to commemorate the Bengkulu people about the story of heroism and death of the Prophet Muhammad's grandson, Hasan and Husein bin Ali bin Abi Talib in a battle with Zaid bin Ubaidillah troops in the desert of Karbala, Iraq on December 10 Muharam 61 Hijri (681 AD).

Celebration in Bengkulu was first implemented by Sheikh Burhanuddin Senggolo known as Imam in 1685. Shaykh Burhanuddin (Imam Senggolo) married a woman of Bengkulu and their children, their grandchildren and their descendants called Tabot family. The ceremony was conducted from 1 to 10 Muharram (Islamic calendar is based) every year.

At first the core of the ceremony is to commemorate the efforts Tabot Shiite leaders and their people collect body parts Hussein, parading and memakamnya in Padang Karbala. The term comes from the Arabic word Tabot Ark which literally means "wooden box" or "coffin".
 
In Al-Quran says Tabot known as a chest containing the Torah. Children of Israel at the time believed that they would get good when Tabot show up and be in the hands of their leaders. Instead they will get a disaster when it was gone.
 
There are no written records from the time the ceremony began to be known in Bengkulu Tabot. However, it is strongly suspected that the tradition of mourning rites depart from the adherents of Shi'ism was taken by the builders who built the Fort Marlborought (1718-1719) in Bengkulu. The builder is, imported by the British of Madras and Bengal in southern India which happens to be the followers of Shiite Islam.
 
Workers who feel comfortable with people tatahidup Bengkulu, led by Imam Sheikh Burhanuddin Senggolo alias, decided to stay and establish a new settlement called File, now known as the Central Village Padang. Tradition brought from Madras and Bengal bequeathed to their descendants who have been assimilated by the original Bengkulu and produce offspring, known as the people Sippai.


Mourning traditions brought from their home country has experienced assimilation and acculturation with the local culture, and then inherited and institutionalized into what became known as Tabot ceremony. Tabot ceremony is more widespread than the Painan Bengkulu and Padang, Pariaman, Maninjau, Pidie, Banda Aceh, Meuleboh and Singkil. But in its development, activities Tabot disappeared in many places. Until at length only in two places, namely in the name of the Tabot Bengkulu and West Sumatra in Pariaman (entrance around the year 1831) as Tabuik. Both are the same, but the implementation is somewhat different ways.
 
If at first Tabot ceremony used by the Shi'ites to commemorate the death of Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, since the people Sippai escape the influence of Shi'ism, the ceremony is performed only as a family obligation to fulfill the will of their fathers . Later, since the last decade, in addition to carrying out the ancestor's will, the ceremony is also intended as a form of participation of the people Sippai in coaching and development of local culture Bengkulu area.
 
Social and cultural conditions, it seems, is also the cause of differences in the manner of implementation Tabot ceremony. In Bengkulu, Tabotnya totaled 17 which indicates the number of families who carry out initial Tabot. At first Tabot in Bengkulu in the waste into the sea, but the development Tabot in Bengkulu dumped in the marshes around public cemetery known as the tomb believed to be a place Karbela dimakamnya Senggolo alias Imam Sheikh Burhanuddin.

To carry out the ceremony Tabot, there are some tools to be prepared, which are:
1. Making Tabot
Completeness of tools for creating Tabot include: bamboo, rattan, paper, cardboard, paper mar-mar, grip paper, rope, carving knife, drawing tools, flashlight, lights, paper flowers, plastic flowers and so forth. If the views of the many tools that are needed, the costs required to make Tabot about 5-40 million dollars.
 
2. Feast and offerings
The materials used to make a feast and offerings include: sticky rice, golden banana, sugarcane, ginger, dadeh, palm sugar, sugar, coconut, chicken, meat, spices, incense, and others.
 
3. Music Equipment Tabot
Musical instruments are usually used in the ceremony Tabot is dol and tessa. Dol is made of wood hollowed center and then covered with cow skin. Dol is shaped like a drum. Its diameter is about 70-125 cm, and the bat tool diameter 5 cm and 30 cm in length. How to use it in a way beaten. While Tessa is shaped like a tambourine, made of copper, iron or aluminum plate, and also from the cauldron of its surface covered degan goatskin that has been dried.
 
4. Other fittings
Other tools they need to be prepared on each unit Tabot is: red and white flag of the following household size poles, flag banner green or blue is larger than the red-white flag, white flags which measure is equal to the panel (and pole ), double-edged spear diujungnya hanged, duplicate zufikar sword (sword of the Prophet) with a mini size.

Stages Tabot ceremony is as follows:
 
1) Mengambik land (land take)
Land taken should contain magical elements must therefore be taken from the shrine. In Bengkulu, there are only two places that are considered sacred in the Sacred Footprint Padri is located on the waterfront not far from Fort Marlborough in the right corner of Bengkulu and Sacred Sea Port Anggut located in a common grave near the monument Tebek Hamilton Market, not far from the coast of Nala . The ceremony took place on the evening of 1 Muharram, around 22:00 pm.
 
Land taken is stored in Gerga (center / headquarters Tabot group concerned), shaped like a human doll and wrapped in a white shroud and placed in Gerga. Gerga oldest in Bengkulu there are only two, namely Gerga Gerga File and Ward. Both have been renovated and is now building permanent shape.
 
In both places, they give offerings of: red pulp and white pulp, brown sugar, betel 7 Earring, 7 sticks of cigarettes NYPA, a cup of black coffee, sherbet 1 cup water, whey (raw, pure cow's milk) 1 cup water Sandalwood 1 cup, 1 cup water and basil.
 
2) Sit Penja (washing fingers)
Penja are objects made of brass, silver or copper in the form of human hands full with his fingers. Penja hence is also called the radius. According to family Sippai, Penja are sacred objects that contain elements of magic. He should be washed with lime water each year. Penja washing ceremony is called sitting Penja, which was held on 5 Muharram around 16:00 pm.
 
In the event this Penja, the equipment required is: water flower, water, lime juice, offerings, and penja to be washed. Offerings are prepared comprising: Kebuli 1 portion of rice, a plate of rice crackers, a banana gold comb, tebung 1 piece, 1 cup of black coffee, water serobat 1 cup and 1 cup buttermilk.
 
3) Menjara (mengandun)
Menjara is to visit or go to another group for beruji / dol playing, a kind of drum made of wood hollowed out the center and covered with cow skin.
 
The event was held on December 6 and 7 Muharram starts at 20.00 or 23.00 pm. On the 6th of Muharram, the group went to the Ward Tabot files while on the 7th of Muharram group Tabot Files Tabot Ward came to the group. This activity takes place on the open page provided by each group.
 
4) Meradai (raise funds)
Meradai is the withdrawal of funds by the Jola (Malay is the person in charge of taking the funds for community activities) which consists of children aged 10-12 years. The event was conducted on the afternoon of 6 between the hours of 07:00 to 17:00 pm Muharram. The location of the fund is usually agreed upon by each group Tabot. Equipment needed include: flag banner, double-edged spear, or kambut bags, sacks of wheat, and tessa.
 
5) Arak Penja (drives along the radius)
Penja wine or strong drink is the radius of the event paraded the fingers are placed on the Tabot with the main streets in the city of Bengkulu. The event was held on the evening of the eighth month of Muharram, which is at about 19.00 am and ended around 21:00 pm.
Materials are used as offerings are: 1 portion of rice Kebuli, black coffee 1 cup, 1 cup water serobat, scrambled eggs 1 piece, plate 7 side dishes (7 different types of side dishes).

6) Arak Seroban (parading Turbans)
Arak is the event paraded Serban Penja coupled with Serban (Turbans) and placed on white Tabot Throckmorton (Small Tabot). Tabot Coki comes with a flag / banner of white and green or blue bearing the name "Hasan and Husain" with a beautiful Arabic calligraphy. This activity was held on the eve of the 9th Muharram at around 19:00 to 21:00 pm.As it name suggests, the equipment required in this event is Tabot and seroban. It also takes a special cloth and Tabot Throckmorton (royal chair / throne).
 
7) Gam (quiet / mourning)
One of the steps that must be adhered Tabot ceremony is "gam". Gam is the time that there should be no activity whatsoever. Gam comes from the word "Ghum" meaning closed or blocked. The 9th of Muharram is a picture of this period, ie from 07:00 to 16:00 o'clock pm, at which time all activities related to the ring ceremony Tabot including Tassa dol and don'ts. So the picture can also be called a quiet period.
 
8) Arak Gedang (taptu akbar)
On the 9th of Muharram night, around 19:00 pm ritual performed in gerga Besanding Tabot release (HQ) respectively. Proceed further with the pawpaw wine Tabot group marched from the headquarters of each of the specified route. Then they would meet to form the procession shall have an end (grand parade). The procession was to be crowded because of the merging groups Tabot, entertainment groups, advocates and the community respectively. This event ended at around 20:00 pm.
 
End of the show is all of pawpaw wine Tabot and group entertainers gathered at Merdeka field Bengkulu (Current: Provincial Monument Square). Tabot aligned juxtaposed bershaf local terms, hence the event is called Tabot Besanding.
Equipment required in this activity is the cart. These carts used to transport Tabot to the Tabot collected.

9) Tabot Tebuang (Tabot wasted)
The last event of the series of ceremonies Tabot is Tabot tebuang event held on the 10th of Muharram. At 09.00 am all Tabot had gathered in the field and have been juxtaposed as Merdeka Tabot besanding night. Entertainment group has also gathered here and entertain the visitors were present at that time.
 
At around 11:00 the procession moved toward the Tabot Jati Padang and ends at the general cemetery Karabela. It became a ritual event location Tabot tebuang for here is buried Imam Senggolo (Sheikh Burhanuddin) pioneer Tabot ceremony in Bengkulu.
 
At around 12:30 pm ceremony at the tomb Senggolo Tabot Tebuang it. Because the value is considered magical, this event can only be led by the Elders of the oldest Tabot. Completed the ritual at the top, then building Tabot thrown into the swamp adjacent to the tomb complex. With waste Tabot at about 13:30 pm, the ceremony was finished the whole series is Tabot.
 
Every action in the ceremony always begins with reading Tabot Basmalah and prayers. The prayers are:

   
Prayer grave
    
Congratulations and beg forgiveness prayer the souls of the Muslims in the world
    
Reading beads
    
Sholawat ulul 'azmi
    
Sholawat Wasilah and other
 
In general, there are two values ​​contained in the ceremony Tabot, namely: the value of Religion (sacred), history, and social. Religious values ​​(sacred) in Tabot ceremony are: one, the process will remind people of the land mengambik origin of its creation. Second, regardless of the view that it contains elements of ritual Tabot irregularities in the faith, such as the use of incantations and sacred texts in the procession mengambik ground, but the essence is to make us aware that religion can not be separated from the local cultural values. And third, the ceremony is a celebration for reception Tabot Islamic new year.
 
The value contained in the cultural history Tabot is a manifestation of love and to commemorate the death of the Prophet Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Abi Talib who was killed in Padang Karbela and also as an expression of hostility against the Umayyad family in general and particularly on Yazid bin Muawiya, the Umayyad caliph who ruled at that time, along with the Governor 'Ubaidullah bin Ziyad who ordered the attack on Husayn bin' Ali along with his army. The social values ​​contained therein, among other things: remind man penghalalan practice all the way to the summit of power and symbolism of a social concern.
 
Many of the values ​​of wisdom that can be extracted and used as a foundation for living life, but if not addressed by the wise, the ceremony will be just Tabot cultural festival lose its essence. Festive in the implementation (festival) but lost its spirit.